Skip to main content

Thought for the Day: Standards of Proof/Learning from the G'onim

There are two things people say that I find particularly annoying: "I always wanted to ..." and "I'll never forget ..."  Really?  Since your first breath in this world you had that desire?  Really?  You know the future and what other events might occur that will crowd this one out?

That being said; I've always wanted to learn האמונות והדעות/Beliefs and Opinions by R' Saadia Gaon.  It is one of (if not the) earliest treatise on the rational basis for our (that is, Orthodox Jewish) beliefs and "vortlach" from it are widely quoted.  (For example: that there is not eating nor drinking in the world to come; that world is an entirely spiritual experience.)  I am very glad that my Hebrew has finally gotten good enough and my understanding mature enough to work through this beautiful sefer.
The main difficulty is not the language.  Baruch HaShem, my modern Hebrew skills are pretty poor, but the language of our sages in all generations has a consistent vocabulary and style.  The only real difficulty with the language is that R' Saadia writes in a particularly elegant style and precise vocabulary.  The biggest hurdle for me is some unfamiliar words; not much different the difficulty one faces when reading a text book (on any subject) vs a magazine article on the same topic.

A much bigger hurdle is accounting to the different mind set of a writer from over a thousand years ago.  האמונות והדעות was completed circa 933 -- long before Newton and Copernicus.  Even so, R' Saadia addresses the question of multiple worlds and other heavens; very mature ideas, indeed.  His proofs, based as they are on the Aristotelian world view, do not "sing" to us today.  None the less, the way he addresses the issues allows one to clearly separate the problem/issue from its proof; allowing one to contemplate the same issues now with our different world view.

R' Saadia begins, after a long introduction on the nature of proof in general, with a warning.  One who is embarking on this investigation, he notes, is delving into matters that are not discernible by our physical senses.  These are entirely intellectual delving into the deepest and most fundamental principles of our existence.  That being the case, he gives three criteria for success:
  1. It must be logical and internally self-consistent.
  2. One must have answers for the questions brought by other philosophies/investigations the demonstrate the superiority of our conclusions.
  3. It must be supported by the signs and wonders wrought by our prophets.
Here's my perspective on his criteria.  If you don't have (1), you have nothing at all anyway.  Without (2), you have no reason to choose your perspective over another.  Without (3), you are not taking into account whatever little concrete data we do have.  I found it particularly fascinating that R' Saadia is only interested in signs and wonders after he has a world view that is logically consistent and demonstrably better than any other world view.  On the one hand, signs and wonders are impressive, but without context they don't prove anything.  On the other hand, you can't just ignore signs and wonders because they don't fit into your world view.  Note that with every new competing philosophy and idea, one must check if (2) still applies, modify (1) accordingly, and do a reality check with (3).

R' Saadia is therefore saying that Orthodox Judaism demands extreme intellectual honesty, a constant awareness and understanding of current issues, and a lifetime of refining one's outlook.  In the end, then, authentic, Torah/Orthodox Judaism is refreshingly modern in its approach and demands; always has been, always will be.

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

Thought for the Day: Battling the Evil Inclination on all Fronts

Yom Kippur.  When I was growing up, there were three annual events that marked the Jewish calendar: eating matzos on Passover, lighting candles on Chanuka, and  fasting on Yom Kippur.  Major news organizations around the world report on the "surreal" and "eerie" quiet of the streets in even the most secular neighborhoods of Israel.  Yom Kippur.

As you know, I am observant of Jewish law.  Some have even called me "ultra orthodox" (not in a kind way).  Given that, I have a question.  How likely do you think that I would be tempted to eat on Yom Kippur, that most holy day of the year?  Let's make the scale zero to ten, where zero is "as likely as driving through McDonald's on Shabbos and ordering a Big Mac with extra cheese." and ten is "as likely as breathing regularly".  Take your time.  If you answered "zero"; thank you, but -- sadly and penitently -- no.  The answer is more like nine; I'd like to say lower, but i…

Thought for the Day: Sometimes a Food Loses Its Identity When It Loses Its Bracha; Sometimes It Doesn't

Let's start with a question: Why are We Allowed to Drink Coffee and Whiskey Made by Non-Jews?  Before you ask,"Why would I think that I shouldn't be able to drink whiskey and coffee made by non-Jews?", I'll tell you. Simple, we all know that Chazal made a decree -- known as בישול עכו''ם/bishul akim -- that particular foods cooked by non-Jews are forbidden.  There are basically two criteria that determines if a dish falls into this category:
Is not consumed raw.Fit for a royal banquet. Cooked carrots, therefore, are not a problem since they can be eaten raw (I actually prefer them that way).  Baked beans are find because the are not prestigious enough.  (For great synopsis of the laws, see the article on the Star-K site, FOOD FIT FOR A KING, by Rabbi Moshe Heinemann, shlita.)  There are lots of cool questions and details (baked potatoes are prestigious, does that make even potato chips and issue?) which are for another time.  Clearly, though, both coffee an…

Thought for the Day: Coming Into This World for Torah, Avodah, and Acts of Loving Kindness

This TftD is so self-serving that I should be embarrassed.  But I am not... talking about grandchildren is always off budget.  I have, bli ayin hara, a beautiful new grandson; born at 6:11 PM CDT last Friday night.  The secular (aka -- by me, anyway -- slave) date is October 20, 2017 CE.  The Hebrew (aka Real) date is certainly Rosh Chodesh חשון/Cheshvan and certainly in the year 5778 since Creation.  The date, you ask... good question!

Sundown on Friday night was 6:01 PM CDT, which means he was born either at the end of the last day of תשרי or the beginning of the first day of Cheshvan; a period know as בין השמשות/twilight.  What's the big deal, you ask... I am so glad you asked.  We all deal quite handily with בין השמשות every week and every holiday; we're just stringent.  We start Shabbos and the first day of Yom Tov before בין השמשות; that is, before sundown.  Likewise, we end Shabbos and the first day of Yom Tov after בין השמשות; some 42, 50, 60, or 72 minutes after sundo…